This study is a five-year research project which aims to draft the standard setting and assessment framework based on the scientific core competence for the 2019 National Curriculum, and to build a database for longitudinal study. The 2019 Curriculum, which serves as guideline for the 12-year Compulsory Education program, is to be implemented in the fall of 2019, starting with first-graders in primary schools, junior high schools, and high schools. Until then, course design, school teaching and student learning will all be censored to conform to the 2019 Curriculum in effort to achieve its academic goal, but concerns for effective evaluation of school teaching and student learning will eventually come down to a reliable assessment. This study focuses on exploring how the core competence in science as required in the 2019 Curriculum could be transformed into an assessment framework so as to examine learning gains, how such assessment for scientific core competence should be constructed to gauge the core competence in its abstract form, and, lastly, how the standard of scientific core competence ought to be set to discern stratified level of scientific competence. In order to evaluate the performance of the 2019 Curriculum in scientific literacy, the longitudinal study is applied to the two group students, one group is based on the old national curriculum context, and one group is based on the 2019 curriculum context. The results of this research will guide the next circle reform on curriculum.