The present study aims to understand the perception toward autonomous learning and how to facilitate autonomous learning in high school context. Study 1 was to conduct semi-structured interview so as to understand 12 high school teachers’ perception toward autonomous learning and how to effectively implement it. The results indicated that automous learning is that learners need to be aware or understand his/her own interest, needs, and ability. By using the skills of self-management (e.g., learning strategies time management), learners may be able to gradually achieve the collective or personal goals. In a class, formative and summative feedback is able to help learners regulate their behaviors. Teachers should espouse open and acceptive attitude and provide both cognitive and emotional support. In a school, the flexible, open-minded, and supportive learning atmosphere should be nurtured, and parental involvement is also helpful.
Based on self-determination theory, the second study was to examine how teacher support (i.e., autonomy support, teacher structure, teacher involvement), perceived need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and mindful trait are able to affect learning motivation and learning engagement. The participants were 275 high school learners from three high schools in Taiwan. Structured equation modelling was conducted to examine the proposed hypothesis model. The results indicated that mindful trait can positively predict learning motivation and teacher support can predict positively to learning engagement. Also, both mindful trait and teacher support can affect learning engagement mediated by need satisfaction. Based on the results of study1 and study 2, the three suggestions are provided including facilitating the autonomous learning atmosphere in a school, evaluating the practice of autonomous learning, and applying theory and empirical evidence to guide the practice.